Process Risk Management  - operational risk assessment of process safety information

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Operational risk assessment of your process safety information. 

Process Risk Management

By Ian Sutton

Operational risk assessment of process safety information.

Process Risk Management Sample - Contents

Process Risk Management Ebook
ESBN: C60-3070-1A90-99B3
Description:  

When it comes to operational risk assessment of process safety information, there is no better guide than the author of Process Hazards Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis, Ian Sutton. Download his new Ebook - Process Risk Management, today!

Excellent safety and environmental performance in the process industries does not happen by chance; after all, most process facilities handle large quantities of toxic, flammable and explosive materials, often at high temperature and pressure. Such processes are inherently hazardous. Therefore process risk must be properly understood and managed.

An effective risk management program has three elements. First, the program must be properly grounded in theory. Second, risk management has to be based practical. Many risk analyses are theoretically interesting, but they do not provide much practical help to managers, operators and engineers working on operating facilities and on projects.

The third element in an effective risk management program is the appropriate use of both the ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ approaches to both analysis and follow-up. The ‘hard’ approach relies on the use of formal models, quantitative data and an objective examination of equipment and instrumentation. The ‘soft’ approach, on the other hand, is oriented more toward understanding people and their behaviors. The best risk management programs and this Process Risk Management book, combine both approaches.

Synopsis by Chapter:

Chapter 1 - Risk Management provides an overview of risk management in the process industries. Terminology - such as the important distinction between the words 'frequency' and 'probability' - is explained, as are fundamental concepts, such as the role of safeguards in a process safety management system.

Chapter 2 - Hazards Identification describes how hazards can be identified, usually in a team environment. The role of the team leader (facilitator), scribe and department specialists is discussed, as is the all important topic of writing the final report. The chapter points out some of the limitations of typical hazards analyses, and discusses how hazards analysis fits into the overall topic of process safety management.

Chapter 3 - Hazards Analysis Techniques describes some of the more commonly used methods for identifying hazards. The Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) method is discussed in depth, as are Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA), Checklists and the What-If approach. The strengths and limitations of each technique are described.

Chapter 4 - Consequence Analysis provides an overview of some of the major consequence issues facing the process industries. These include fires, explosions, and toxic gas releases.

Chapter 5 - Likelihood Analysis provides a background to the difficult yet important issue of risk quantification. The chapter starts by discussing the Pareto Principle, then discusses the Fault Tree Analysis method in some depth. The final section of the chapter outlines some of the limitations that are inherent in quantification work.

(Note: The fault tree content of this chapter is available in an expanded form in Fault Tree Analysis .)

Chapter 6 - Common Hazards explains that many hazards are common to a wide variety of processes and technologies. A wide range of such common hazards are listed in this chapter.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 — Risk Management

Introduction
About this Series
   Ebooks
   Books
   Engineering Minutes / Events
   Reference Material
Worked Example
Clients / Customers
   Senior Management
   Facility / Plant Managers
   Project Managers
   Regulators / Auditors
Malicious Acts
Health, Safety & Environmental (HSE) Programs
   Environmental and Sustainability Programs
   Health
   Safety
   Process Safety Management
      Process
      Safety
      Management
      Non-Prescriptive
      Performance Based
Elements of Risk
Hazards
   Hazard Scope
   Safe Limits
   Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP)
   Unsafe Mixing Scenarios
   Materials of Construction Table
Consequences
   Type of Consequence
      Safety
      Environmental
      Health
      Economic
Predicted Frequency
Presence of Persons
Economies of Scale
Levels of Protection / Safeguards
   Safeguard Level 1: Normal Operations
   Safeguard Level 2: Procedural Safeguards
   Safeguard Level 3: Safety Instrumented Systems
   Safeguard Level 4: Mechanical Safeguards
      Check Valves
      Pressure Safety Relief Valves
   Safeguard Level 5: Passive Safeguards
   Safeguard Level 6: Emergency Response
Subjective Nature of Risk
   Degree of Control
   Familiarity with the Hazard
   Direct Benefit
   Personal Impact
   Natural vs. Man-Made Risks
   Recency of Events
   Effects of the Consequence Term
Acceptable Risk
   As Low as Reasonably Practical - ALARP
   De Minimis Risk
   Citations / ‘Case Law’
   Indexing Methods
Risk Matrices
   Consequence Matrix
      Worker Safety
      Public Safety and Health
      Environmental Impact
      Economic Loss
   Frequency Matrix
   Risk Matrix
Risk Management Process
   Step 1. Identify the Hazards
      Creative / Imaginative
      Experience-Based / Engineering Standards
      Logical / Rational
   Step 2. Risk Rank
   Step 3. Identify Hazard Causes
   Step 4. Eliminate or Substitute the Hazard
   Step 5. Remove the People
   Step 6. Mitigate the Consequences
   Step 7. Reduce the Likelihood
   Step 8. Install Safeguards
   Risk Check
Common Cause Events
   Utility Failure
   Instruments on Manual
   Instrument Pluggage
   Vibration
   External Events
   Maintenance Availability
   Human Error / Untrained Personnel
The Risk Register
   Finding Number
   Node
   Hazard / Consequence / Likelihood / Risk
   Follow-Up
Conclusions

Chapter 2 — Hazards Identification

Introduction
Historical Development
Organization of a Hazards Analysis
   Charge / Scope Letter
   Abandoned Equipment
   Preparations
   Logistics
   Location of the Meeting
   Projection of Notes
   Documentation Requirements
      Block Flow Diagrams (BFDs)
      Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs)
      Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs)
      Cause and Effect Diagrams
      Layout Diagrams
   Security of the Information
   Time Required
   Kick-Off Meeting
   Close-Out Meeting
Short Analyses
The Team
   Leader / Facilitator
      Process Knowledge
      Challenge the Status Quo Ante
      Creative Thinking
      Casual Remarks
      “If We Had Unlimited Money”
      Generalizations
      Team Management
      Knowledge of Actual Incidents
      Lawyer-Like Behavior
      Persona
      Personal Preparation
      Engineering Standards
   The Scribe
   Operations / Maintenance Expert
   Process Expert
   Instrument Expert
   Specialists
   Sophisticated Use of Language
   The One-Minute Engineering Department
Results of the Analysis
   Findings
   Recommendations
   Action Items
The Hazards Analysis Report
   Timeliness
   Writing Style
      Non-Emotional Language
      Findings and Recommendations
      Abstraction
      Minimalist Writing - Make Every Word Tell
      Omit Needless Words
      Eliminate Tautologies
      Short, Simple Words
      Minimize ‘Soft’ Materials
      Eschew Obfuscation
   Language Style
   Findings Terminology
   Completeness
   ‘Non-Findings’
   Appearance
   Pictures
   Report Distribution
   Communication with the Public
   Table of Contents
      1. Disclaimer
      2. Executive Summary
      3. Objectives of the Analysis
      4. Summary of Findings
      5. Method Used
      6. Risk Rank
      7. The Team
      8. Regulations
      9. Attachments
      10. Meeting Notes
Development of the Report
   Step 1. Notes Clean-Up
      Completeness of the Notes
      Date Format
      Cross-Reference
      Anonymity
   Step 2. Team Review
   Step 3. Draft Report
   Step 4. Client Review
   Step 5. Final Report
   Step 6. Risk Register
Follow Up
Legal Issues
   Need to Act on Findings
   Informal Notes
   Internal Communication
   Letter of Certification
Special Types of Hazards Analysis
   Temporary Operations
   Non-Process Applications
   Decommissioning / Demolition
Revalidation Hazards Analyses
Benefits and Limitations of Hazard Analyses
   Strengths
      Providing Time to Think
      Challenging Conventional Thinking
      Cross-Discipline Communication
      Education
      Development of Technical Information
      Economic Payoff
   Limitations and Concerns
      Imprecision in Defining Terms
      Multiple Contingencies
      Complexities and Subtle Interactions
      Dynamic Conditions
      Common Cause Events
      Knowledge of Safe Operating Limits
      Lack of Quantification
      Team Quality
      Personal Experience
      Boredom
      Confusion with Design Reviews
      False Confidence
      Equipment Orientation
      Interfaces
      Human Error
Hazards Analysis on Projects
   Phase I — Concept Selection
   Phase II — Preliminary Engineering
   Phase III — Detailed Engineering
   Phase IV — Fabrication and Construction
   Phase V — Commissioning and Start-Up
Regulations, Standards and Guidance
   Paragraph (1) Initial Hazard Analysis
   Paragraph (2) Methodology
   Paragraph (3) Issues to Address
   Paragraph (4) Team
   Paragraph (5) Findings and Recommendations
   Paragraph (6) Revalidation
Process Safety Management
   Element #1 — Employee Participation
   Element #2 — Process Safety Information
      Piping & Instrument Diagrams
      Compatibility of Chemicals
      Safe Operating Limits
      Engineering Standards
   Element #4 — Operating Procedures
   Element #8 — Mechanical Integrity
   Element #10 — Management of Change
Conclusions

Chapter 3 — Hazard Analysis Techniques

Introduction
The Hazard and Operability Method (HAZOP)
   Step 1. Node Selection and Purpose
   Step 2. Process Guideword / Safe Limits
   Step 3. Identification of Hazards and their Causes
   Step 4. ‘Announcement’ of the Hazard
   Step 5. Consequences
   Step 6. Identification of Safeguards
   Step 7. Predicted Frequency of Occurrence of the Hazard
   Step 8. Risk Ranking
   Step 9. Findings
   Step 10. Next Process Guideword / Node
Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Checklists
The What-If Method
   Node / Functional Area Review
   Equipment and Function Review
   Utility Systems
   Batch Processes
   Operating Procedures
   Layout Reviews
What-If / Checklist Method
Indexing Methods
Interface Hazards Analysis
Conclusions

Chapter 4 — Consequence Analysis

Introduction
Fires
   Flammable Range
   Ignition Temperature / Flash Point
   Ignition Sources
      Radiant Heat
      Iron Sulfide
   Area Classification
   Fire Detection and Response
      Fire Detectors and Alarms
      Fire Zones
Explosions
   Deflagrations and Detonations
   Blast Effects
   BLEVE
Toxic Gases
   Terminology
   Release Modeling
   Effect of Toxic Gases
   Short-Term Exposure Limits
   Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs)
      ERPG–3
      ERPG–2
      ERPG–1
   Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)
   Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
   Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
   Immediately Damaging to Life and Health (IDLH)
   Effect of Being Indoors
Substance Hazards Index (Volatile Liquids)
Conclusions

Chapter 5 — Likelihood Analysis

Introduction
Terminology
   Frequency
   Predicted Frequency
   Probability
   Likelihood
   Error / Statistical Significance
   Failure / Fault
   Independence
   Randomness
   Failure Rate
      Early Failures
      Constant Failure Rate
      Wear-Out Failures
      Overall Failure Rate
The Pareto Principle / Importance Ranking
Fault Tree Analysis
   Gates
   OR Gate
   AND Gate
   VOTING Gate
   Events
      Top Event
      Intermediate Events
      Base Events
Top-Down Development of a Fault Tree
   1. Define the Top Event
   2. Build the Tree
      Create the First Level
      Second Level - Illustration of the AND Gate
      Third Level - Illustration of the OR Gate
      Final Development
   3. Identify the Cut Sets
   4. Eliminate Repeat Sets
   5. Eliminate Repeat Events in a Set
   6. Eliminate Redundant Events
   7. Quantify the Risk
      Mathematics of an OR Gate
      Mathematics of an AND Gate
      Mathematics of a Voting Gate
      Cut Set Quantification
   8. Risk Rank
      Event Contribution
      Important Few
      Unimportant Many
      Power of the AND Gate
      Importance Equalization
      Cost-Benefit Analysis
Generic Fault Trees
   Generic Safety Fault Tree
   Generic Reliability Fault Tree
Discussion of the Fault Tree Method
Qualitative Fault Tree Analysis
Event Tree Analysis
   Development of an Event Tree
   Event Tree Quantification
   Combining Event Trees and Fault Trees
   Event Trees in the Process Industries
      Short Sequence of Events
      Many Events
      Partial Success
Discrete Event Analysis
   Monte Carlo Simulation
   Markov Models
Limitations to Quantification
   Mathematical Understanding
   Value-Laden Assumptions
   Lack of Exhaustivity
   Cost of Human Suffering
   Human Behavior
   Data Quality
Conclusions

Chapter 6 — Common Hazards

Introduction
Process Hazards
   High Flow
   Low / No Flow
   Reverse Flow
   Misdirected Flow
   High Pressure
   High Temperature
      Blocked-In Pump
      Polymerization
      External Fire
   Low Temperature
   Low Pressure
   High Level
   Wrong Composition
Hazards of Utilities
   Electrical Power Failure
   Reverse Flow to a Utility Header
   Survivability of Utilities
Hazards of Water
   Water in Hydrocarbon Tanks
   Water in Very Hot Liquid
   Static Electricity
   Water and Firefighting
Hazards of Steam
   Steaming Vessels during Turnaround
   Reboiler Leak
   Wet Steam
Hazards of Ice
   Line Freezing
   Hydrates
Hazards of Compressed Gas
   Gas Cylinders
   Pigging Incident
Hazards of Chemicals
   Carbon Monoxide (CO)
   Nitrogen (N2)
   Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
   Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
   Chemical Embrittlement
Hazards of Air
   Flammable Mixture
   Blowing a Line Clear
Hazards of External Events
   Flooding
   Lightning
   Earthquakes
Hazards of Equipment and Instruments
   Furnace Firing
   Multiple Uses of Equipment
   Distributed Control Systems
Hazards of Piping, Valves and Hoses
   Piping
      Hydraulic Hammer
      Pig Launchers and Receivers
      Pressure in Relief Headers
      Overload of Overhead Vacuum Lines
      Underground Piping
   Hoses
      Hoses and Truck Pull-Away
      Hose Run Over
      Hose Failure
      Backflow Preventor
   Valves
      Blocked-In Pressure Relief Valve
      Vents and Bleeders
      Critical Control Valves in Manual
   Shared Relief Valve
   Block Valves below Relief Valves
   SDV Bypass
Conclusions

Index

Price:  US$69.95 (272 pages)

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Automated download system is powered by our preferred method of payment, secure Pay Pal. (After purchase with 'Buy Now' button above, you immediately receive an email with download link.) If you prefer us to manually process your order or would like to mail or fax order in, please click CD and Book Order Form on our secure servers at BIN95.